Coffee is produced from an evergreen shrub or tree (which can grow up to 20 feet in height, and live as long as 30 years), which creates oval-shaped berries (which have seeds or beans). Schultz describes a labor-intensive process of making coffee beans, and hand harvesting is a necessity for the excellent quality coffee brands. First, coffee berries ripen at different stages on a farm, so it’s almost a constant process of picking from February through April (in Central America). The berries take seven to nine months to ripen. Next, following picking and sorting of the quality berries, the outer pulpy layer of the cherry or berry is removed, by either a drying process in the sun, or a “wet mill” process, where “all of the fruit is taken off, and it leaves the seed behind.” The beans are placed in a type of water bath for fermentation, and the chemical changes loosen the pulp. Following the pulp removal, some farms use drying processes in the sun, where the beans are constantly turned over to even the drying. The dry milling procedure also involves “sorting” by hand, with “women, whose eyes [on the coffee] beat the lasers” at detecting flaws in the beans. The beans get sorted by weight, size, and color and then the last outer layer is removed. A textile mill can be nearby, to supply bags, which are 75 to 150 pounds each of coffee beans. Smaller, single-family owned farms, with an acre of coffee plants, like one Nicaraguan family Schultz visits, produce as little as 10 bags per year, and they use a central milling operation, with other tiny-sized coffee farmers.